What crops into our minds when we think of Africa? A continent mired in perpetual darkness and from which no good can emanate? A land populated by one-eyed intellectuals, groping blindly in search of solutions to endless problems? A land raped, imbued with starvation, diseases and superstition? The answer, sadly, is in the affirmative.
Some eminent Western intellectuals, in whose hands it fell to give a true account of the glorious achievements of the Black race, the barbaric institution of slavery having muzzled their voices, focused instead on the periphery of Black accomplishments and only had ignominious words to say. One such was Voltaire, who said in his supreme ignorance, “The round eyes of the Negroes, their flat nose, thick lips, ears of different shape, the wool on their heads, the measure of their intelligence, place between them and other species prodigious differences.” (1)
Yet from this despised continent and her peoples emerged the foundations of world civilization. My purpose therefore in writing this book is to help shed light on the fact that Blacks, widely considered to be the scum of the Earth, have in actual fact contributed immensely to world civilization.
For the writing of this project, I referred to a number of sources that gave me insight and knowledge about Black history. After painstaking, time-consuming research, I finally managed to obtain enough information for the completion of this work. Some of the most important sources have evidently been labeled unworthy since they cannot be found on the shelves of major or minor bookstores and libraries. My fervent desire to reveal the truth about the immense contribution Blacks have made to the history of Mankind led to the creation of this work.
Some years ago, I had a candid discussion with a fellow Black who did his utmost to assure me of the fact that Blacks have never played any role in Biblical antiquity. Blacks have played very significant roles throughout the Bible, but its history has been distorted beyond recognition.
There is a lot of evidence to prove that Black mariners have been to the Americas before Christopher Columbus. The Nubian monarchy (in modern-day Sudan) is the oldest in recorded history, even before Europe dreamt of a monarchy. It was Aesop, a Black man who introduced his fables, using animals as characters into Greece. He inspired LaFontaine, the French writer; to begin his own fables and has had a profound impact on Western thought and morals. Aesop also influenced other famous personalities like Caxton, Shakespeare, Aristophanes, Socrates, Plato, Solon, Aristotle, Julius Caesar, Cicero and others.
Blacks built the pyramids of Egypt and the Sphinx. A close examination of the mummies has revealed that most of the Pharaohs came from Nubia and were Blacks. Seti I, Thutmose III, Tutankamen, Imhotep (the famed Prime Minister to the Pharaoh Zoser) and Rameses II were all Blacks. So were Khufu, (called Cheops by the Greeks) Amenhotep III (Amenophis) Ahmose I (Amos), Pharaoh Mentuhotep I (founder of the Eleventh dynasty), Mycerinus and Pharaoh Sesotris I of the twelfth Dynasty.
Thutmose III was the son of a Sudanese woman, and played a great role in Egyptian Imperialism. He hatched plans for world domination and is also believed to be the inspirer of the tales of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, as well as Homer’s Trojan horse in his monumental work, The Iliad. His able General, Thuty, made a conquest by capturing the town of Joppa with five hundred soldiers hidden in jars. (2) Thutmose III never lost a battle and he displayed great mercy towards his conquered foes. One of his obelisks was erected in Central Park in New York City and another was set up on the banks of the river Thames in London.
The Black Egyptians began to lose their color due to mixing with successive foreign invaders and settlers. Mass migrations by the Blacks to escape their oppressors ultimately led to the takeover of Egypt by foreigners. The Persians invaded in 525 BC. The Macedonians under Alexander the Great were next. Then it was Julius Caesar with his Roman Legions in 50 BC, followed by the Arabs in 640 AD. Other invaders included the Turks, the French and the British.
The Hyksos (sometimes called Shepherd Kings by some historians) also invaded Egypt in ancient times, about 1675 BC. They are believed to be White peoples or quasi-White although they have been classified as Semites. The word “Semite” is misleading. It refers more to geographic location and culture than to race. The Hyksos are believed to have originated from the Southern parts of the Caucasus Mountains and made their capital at Mitani in Syria and Assyria. These nomadic invaders later penetrated the Middle East and settled among the Blacks there, mixing with them. They managed to subdue Egypt at a time the Black Land had been weakened from internal struggles.
Scholars still differ as to the racial makeup of the Hyksos. To some, the Hyksos were Black giants. To others they were Hittites from Asia Minor. While the Hitties of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey, Greece, Syria, Iran, Iraq, parts of Palestine etc.) were originally black, some were eventually absorbed by Indo-Europeans and so lost their identity. Some believe they were not of homogeneous race, while others believe they were Black Phoenicians (Canaanites). It appears that they were composed of different races, with a significant Black presence.
In 1829, the British antiquary Godfrey Higgins stated in his book, Celtic Druids (using as his source Faber’s Origin of Pagan Idol):
Mr Faber then goes on to show that the PHOENICIANS, the Anakim, the Philistim, the Palli, and the Egyptian Shepherd Kings, were all descendants of Cush, or Cushites; which the translators of the Septuagint always render by the word Ethiopians, which, in fact, in the Greek language means nothing but blacks, (but not necessarily Negroes,) and as such it might very properly be translated. (3)
The Hyksos established the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties in Egypt, dynasties regarded by the Blacks of Egypt as the “Great Humiliation,” as they had to endure several indignities and the erosion of their culture and very lives. These barbaric invaders destroyed the monuments and temples of Egypt. Some historians believe that the Hebrews came to Egypt at this time to settle and to trade. The Hyksos treated the Hebrews better than the indigenous Black Egyptians. They made them their allies, clerks, assistants and so on.
Due to the presence of various White invaders of ancient Egypt, some of who ruled as to illegitimate Pharaohs, detractors of Black accomplishments have claimed that White peoples were the originators of Egyptian Civilization. The high-culture of Egypt was full-blown before the arrival of the Hyskos and other invaders. The Egyptologist, Margaret A. Murray, has pointed out that “The Hyksos were an illiterate people and have left no records, with the exception of scarabs. Even these have often only muddled hieroglyphs, showing that the wearers were not able to read them. Scarabs of earlier periods are found in great numbers in southern Palestine with other Egyptian objects, which prove that long before the invasion the Hyksos were in constant touch with Egypt.” (4)
The Hyksos lived in Egypt for over four hundred years (two hundred years or less according to some historians), mixing with the indigenous Blacks, and exterminating them. They did not rule over the whole of Egypt, however, but were mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the Delta and Lower Egypt (i.e. the northern part of Egypt) with their capital at Avaris.
During the era of Apophis, the Hyksos ruler, the Egyptian Blacks under their leader Sekenenre Tao II, (son of Sekenenre Tao I) his sister-wife, Ahhotep I and his son Kamose launched a massive war of liberation from the city of Wo-se’ or Thebes in Upper Egypt. (5) Sekenenre Tao II was, however, killed in battle and his mummy indicates he suffered serious head and neck injuries, probably from ax blows and other weapons. Kamose continued with the struggle, defeating the Hyksos in a number of battles and after his death a few years later (also believed to be in battle), his brother Ahmose I succeeded him and decisively defeated the Hyksos, capturing Memphis and overrunning their capital at Avaris. The Black Egyptians finally defeated the Hyksos and drove their rulers and followers out of Egypt. Although the Hyksos managed to flee to the Middle East, the Black Egyptians under Thutmoses III launched several military campaigns against their cities for several years. A large number of these Hyksos and other foreigners of different nations were, however, permanently settled in Egypt and more intermixture changed the racial characteristics of the Blacks.
Kamose was the last Theban King of the Seventeenth Dynasty (1645-1567 BC). The succeeding dynasty, the Eighteenth Dynasty, was a great period in Egyptian history, with notable Black leaders such as Ahmose I, the founder of this dynasty and his wife, the Black Queen Nefertari. Others were Amenhotep II, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Queen Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I, Amenhotep III, Ikhnaton, and Tutankhamen. Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited and this civilization was known as the “New Empire” or the “New Kingdom.” Those Whites that bore no animosity towards Blacks were integrated into the Empire.
Some scholars believe that the Hyksos were Hebrews. They were not, although there were probably Hebrews among them when they invaded Egypt. The Hyksos have been wrongly labeled ‘Shepherd Kings’ and ‘Children of Israel.’ The word ‘Hyksos’ or ‘Hekshus’ was derived from the Egyptian ‘Hek’ meaning a ruler or King, and ‘Shus’ meaning servants, rather than the word ‘Shasu,’ meaning Shepherds. The Hek-Shus were, therefore, the captive-kings or servant-rulers. The Hekshus called themselves servants of their god, and were rivals of the Osirian religion. (6) The Shasu are said to be the Israelites or Hebrews. (7) According to the Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop, “…those most detested by the Egyptians were the Asian Shepherds of all kinds, from the Semites to the Indo-Europeans.” (8)
It is also believed that the word Hyksos is the Greek rendering of the Egyptian hiq-khase, hiq meaning ruler or chieftain, and khase, meaning “foreign hill-countries”. Hyksos therefore means “chieftain of a foreign-hill country.” (9) The Greek mistranslation of hiq-khase as Hyksos, meaning Shepherd-Kings, is therefore erroneous. It should be realized that the Egyptian priest, Manetho of Sebennytos, (Third Century B.C.) who mentioned the Shepherds, wrote his chronicle on Egypt in Greek. He based his work on translations from old Egyptian records. Much of his work is lost, although fragments have been preserved in the works of writers such as Eusebius and Julius Africanus. According to Flavius Josephus, Manetho also referred to the Shepherds as captives.
Some historians believe that the Hyksos were the Habiru (Apiru in Egyptian) and therefore Hebrews. However, as Georges Roux has pointed out, “…the Habiru have nothing in common with the Hebrews but a similitude of name. They were neither a people nor a tribe, but a class of society made up of refugees, of ‘displaced persons’ as we would now say, who frequently turned into outlaws.” (10)
Whatever the true origin of the word “Hyksos,” our main concern here is with the racial origin of those invaders of ancient Egypt who have been termed Shepherd-Kings and to distinguish them from the Black Hebrews.
It is generally believed that the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot to Egypt. However, there are paintings of horses and chariots in caves in the Sahara, dating from a very early period. The Garamantes, for instance, made use of horses and chariots. (11)
On the black color of the ancient Egyptians, so much has been proved as to make any objections futile. Although a significant number of people believe that the present occupants of North Africa are the original occupants of that region, they fail to recognize the fact that that area has been downtrodden under the heels of successive invaders. Herodotus has claimed that the Colchians were Egyptians since like them they had “black skins and woolly hair.” (The Histories, Book Two, 104). Ancient historians such as Plutarch, Flavius Josephus, Celus and Eusebius have also claimed that the Hebrews were Ethiopians and Egyptians who migrated to Canaan. (12)
The French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, was incensed when he discovered this once great African civilization. He was not enamored of Black accomplishments. He conquered Egypt as part of his military strategy and also because of his desire to unlock the secrets of ancient Egypt, which he believed to be the source of Masonic knowledge. Like many renowned individuals of his era, Napoleon Bonaparte was a freemason. In 1798 he sent architects, surveyors, and about 25,000 soldiers to Egypt. Some of those involved in Theosophist, Masonic and Rosicrucian societies believe they have a heritage in Ancient Egypt. They believe that the passages and chambers in the Great Pyramid were centers of initiation ceremonies. As a matter of fact many of the founding fathers of America were masons. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams as well as Benjamin Franklin and Lafayette were all masons of high degree.
As revealed in Anthony Browder’s book, From the Browder File, and in other works, the founding fathers of America built that nation on Egyptian architecture, symbols and science. Their purpose was to make use of African knowledge to make America a great nation. African knowledge is enshrined in the U.S. dollar bill. The Great Seal of America, for instance, is based on the symbol of Heru (Horus) the Black god. This is the sacred falcon. The founding fathers of America substituted it with an eagle. In the talons of the falcon are the “shen,” the African symbol of infinity, while above it is the Ankh. These symbols represent eternal or everlasting life. They have been in use for thousands of years.
The eagle in the Great Seal of America has 13 leaves and 13 berries on the olive branch in the right talon, 13 arrows grasped in the left talon, 13 stripes on the shield, a six-pointed star made up of 13 stars, 13 stones in the pyramid and so on. They are believed to represent the 13 original colonies. As Anthony Browder says in his aforementioned work, “For years the number 13 has come to represent powers of transformation and rebirth. Twelve has come to symbolize the completion of a cycle and 13 represents the energy of that cycle transcending itself into a higher, often spiritual, plane of existence.” (13)
Thus we see Jesus Christ with 12 disciples, the sun and the zodiac, King Arthur and the twelve Knights of the Round Table. There are also the 12 tribes of Israel and the 12 gates of heaven as mentioned in Revelations of the Holy Bible. On the seal there is also a pyramid with 13 steps and above is the eye of Horus, a symbol of light and vision. In addition, there are 13 letters in the motto carried by the eagle, E PLURIBUS UNUM (Out of many, one) and ANNUIT COEPTIS (He has prospered our beginning).
The Washington monument is an African obelisk, which in the words of Anthony Browder, “was symbolic of the regenerative powers of God.” The obelisk is a symbol of the Black Egyptian god, Osiris. Meridian Hill Park was also designed in such a way that it is aligned to the same meridian that passes through Egypt. The Lincoln memorial was also designed in honor of a temple of Rameses II of Egypt. No credit has been given to Africans in the use of their symbols to regenerate America. America, it should be noted, was made great by the contributions of Black Africans who worked freely for about four hundred years. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were also written in Masonic code and have different meanings to different masons. Lots of other African knowledge can be found in Washington D.C., which was designed by the gifted Black scientist Benjamin Banneker.
Napoleon Bonaparte ordered his soldiers to destroy the Sphinx with rifle and cannon fire. They were unsuccessful and only managed to destroy the nose and appearance of the sphinx. In fact other vandals have also tried to destroy the sphinx. Napoleon Bonaparte also gave his soldiers orders to raise the coffins of the Pharaohs and burn as well as disfigure their faces, with a concentration on their lips and noses. The French scientist, Volney, on seeing the Sphinx, concluded that the features “were precisely those of a Negro.”
Baron Vivant Denon, who made the first known on-site sketch of the Sphinx in 1798 showing its Black features, before its attempted destruction by Napoleon and his soldiers, claims that:
The character is African…the lips are thick…Art must have been at a high pitch when this monument was executed. (14)
It was the same Baron Denon who claimed that it was his own Frenchmen, the soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte, who “blew asunder the nose and lips of the Sphinx of Ghizeh with repeated blasts of cannon fire…” (15)
According to the Arab historian, El-Makrizi, it was a Sufi Monk, one Sa’im al-Dahr who broke off the nose of the Sphinx. If true he probably did a very bad job of it since Gaspero tells us that the destruction can be attributed to the Mamelukes as written in his work, The Dawn of Civilization. Yet Gaspero was not there when such action took place.
It has also been said that the Persian King, Cambyses, after conquering Egypt tried unsuccessfully for two years to destroy the pyramids. He is also said to have “disfigured the Sphinx with battering-rams.” Jealousy also led Cambyses to destroy the beautiful city of Memphis. (16)
From all accounts it would seem that Baron Viviant Denon’s is the most reliable since he witnessed the destruction of the Sphinx’s visage by the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte.
When Herodotus (called the Father of History by Cicero in the first century B.C, although Plutarch called him the Father of Lies), came to Egypt from his native Greece, he was surprised to find that the pyramids were already as old as antiquity. Herodotus was in actual fact a Greek citizen of Ionian birth. Ionia was then an Egyptian colony. Like other Greeks, Herodotus owed much of his knowledge to the Black Egyptians. He described the Egyptians he met as black. Even after mixing with successive invaders and settlers, the Egyptians were still clearly black.
Pythagoras, Plato, Thales, Anaximander, Solon, Democritus and the best minds of Greece came to study under the Black Egyptian priests/professors. These Egyptians were responsible for teaching Pythagoras his theorem, which later became known as Pythagoras’ theorem. This theory had long been known to the Egyptians and is scientifically embodied in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Gizeh. Lycurgus, the lawgiver, also studied in Egypt and the knowledge he acquired there served as the political and legal foundation of Western politics. The Greeks took the knowledge in various disciplines that they had learnt in Africa back to their homelands and incorporated it into their civilization. This knowledge later spread to the rest of Europe.
The French Scientist Count C.F. Volney visited Egypt in 1787. He saw at first hand the ruins of the magnificent African monuments and later wrote in The Ruins of Empires (1789):
There are a people, now forgotten, discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men, now rejected from society for their sable skin and frizzled hair, founded on the study of the laws of nature, those civil and religious systems, which still govern the universe.
These words appeared in the translator’s preface in the original edition, but were expunged in the American reprint.
Jesus Christ, the great Messiah, was a black man. The original Hebrews were Blacks. The Whites who later appeared in Palestine passed as Jews. Blacks are the true Jews. There is an ancient Roman coin in the British Museum with one side depicting the image of the Emperor Justinian II that circulated in Byzantium. The other side depicts Jesus Christ with woolly hair. According to the Cambridge Encyclopedia Co. as cited by J.A. Rogers in the first volume of his Sex and Race, “Whatever the fact, this coin places beyond doubt the belief that Jesus Christ was a Negro.” (17)
Further examples could be given, but in the final analysis it is clear that black achievement can only materialize through black initiative. Black portrayal throughout the world has been predominately negative. We have a moral responsibility to teach our children the truth about black achievement, about the high level of civilization Blacks had once attained while Europe was still asleep.
It is our responsibility to reverse the negativity we face day in and day out. We must RETAKE OUR FAME AND LET IT BE A LASTING ONE.